The risk for death remains high for patients treated for tuberculosis in Ethiopia

Dangisso MH, Woldesemayat EM, Datiko DG, Lindtjorn B. Long-term outcome of smear-positive tuberculosis patients after initiation and completion of treatment: A ten-year retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0193396. Epub 2018/03/13. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193396. PubMed PMID: 29529036; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC5846790.

Background: The status of tuberculosis (TB) patients since initiation of treatment is unknown in South Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes of smear-positive TB patients since initiation and completion of treatment, which includes TB recurrence and mortality of TB patients.

Methods: We did a retrospective cohort study on 2,272 smear-positive TB patients who initiated treatment for TB from September 1, 2002-October 10, 2012 in health facilities in Dale district and Yirgalem town administration. We followed them from the date of start of treatment to either the date of interview or date of death.

Results: Recurrence rate of TB was 15.2 per 1000 person-years. Recurrence was higher for re-treatment cases (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.3). Mortality rate of TB patients was 27.1 per 1,000 person-years. The risk was high for patients above 34 years of age (aHR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.9), poor patients (aHR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), patients with poor treatment outcomes (aHR, 6.7; 95% CI, 5.1-8.9) and for patients treated at least 3 times (aHR 4.8; 95% CI, 2.1-11.1). The excess mortality occurred among patients aged above 34 years was high (41.2/1000 person years).

Conclusions: High TB recurrence and death of TB patients was observed among our study participants. Follow-up of TB patients with the risk factors and managing them could reduce the TB burden.